All this was stated in a matter-of-fact way, but - when you stopped to think about it - what kind of crown was it that radiated heat and caused the skin to haemorrhage and break out in pustulant sores?
Seventeen centuries of kings. I walked on into the deeper darkness, eventually finding my way to Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso Gallery of the Kings. It led off from Get Money - Da Monstar Mob - Da Lost Tapes [2004-2005] eastern edge of the inner Hypostyle Hall about feet from the entrance to the temple.
To pass through the Gallery was to pass through time itself. On the wall to my left was a list of of the gods of Ancient Egypt, together with the names of their principal sanctuaries. On my right, covering an area of perhaps ten feet by six feet, were the names of the 76 pharaohs who had preceded Seti I to the throne; each name was carved in hieroglyphs inside an oval cartouche.
This tableau was known as the ' Abydos King List '. Glowing with colours of molten gold, it was designed to be read from left to right and was divided into five vertical and three horizontal registers.
It covered a grand expanse of almost years, beginning around BC with the reign of Menesfirst king of the First Dynasty, and ending with Seti's own reign around BC. At the extreme left stood two figures exquisitely carved in high relief: Seti and his young son, the future Ramesses II. Belonging to the same class of historical documents as the Turin Papyrus and the Palermo Stonethe list spoke eloquently of the continuity of tradition. An inherent part of that tradition, was the belief or memory of a First Time, long, long ago, when the gods had Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso in Egypt.
Left half of the Turin papyrus map. Right half of the Turin papyrus map. Palermo Stone. Principal among those gods was Osirisand it was therefore appropriate that the Gallery of the Kings should provide access to a second corridor, leading to the rear of the temple Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso a marvelous building was located - one associated with Osiris from the beginning of written records in Egypt 9 and described by the Greek geographer Strabo who visited Abydos in the first century BC as 'a remarkable structure built of solid stone There is a canal leading to the place from the great river And so it remained, out of sight and out of mind, until the beginning of the twentieth century, when the archaeologists Flinders Petrie and Margaret Murray began excavations.
In their season of digging they uncovered parts of a hall and passageway, lying in the desert about feet south-west of the Seti I Temple and built in the recognizable architectural style of the Nineteenth Dynasty. However, sandwiched between these remains and the rear Star War - Raven - Live At The Inferno the Temple, they also found unmistakable signs that 'a large underground building' lay concealed.
This was good guesswork on the part of Petrie and Murray. Shortage of cash, however, meant that their theory of a buried building was not tested until the digging season of Then, under the direction of Professor Naville of the Egypt Exploration Funda long transverse chamber was cleared, at the end of which, to the north-east, was found a massive stone gateway made up of cyclopean blocks of granite and sandstone.
The next season,Naville and his team returned with local helpers and diligently cleared the whole of the huge underground building:. What we discovered [Naville wrote] is a gigantic construction of about feet in length and 60 in width, built with the most enormous stones that may be seen in Egypt.
In the four sides of the enclosure walls are cells, 17 in number, of the height of a man and without Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso of any kind. Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso building itself is divided into three naves, the middle one being wider than those of the sides; the division is produced by two Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso made of huge granite monoliths supporting architraves Les Trois Cloches - Edith Piaf - Edith Piaf equal size.
Naville commented with some astonishment on one block he measured in the corner of the building's northern nave, a block more than twenty-five feet long.
The cells are connected by a narrow ledge between two and three feet wide; there is a ledge also on the opposite side of the nave, but Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso floor at Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatsoand in digging to a depth of 12 Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso we reached infiltrated water.
Even below the great gateway there is no floor, and when there was water in front of it the cells were probably reached with a small boat. The most ancient stone Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso in Egypt. Water, water, everywhere - this seemed to be the theme of the Osireion, which lay at the bottom of the huge crater Naville and his men had excavated in It was positioned some 50 feet below the level of the floor of the Seti I Temple, almost flush with the water-table, and was approached by a modern stairway curving down to the south-east.
Having descended this stairway, I passed under the hulking lintel slabs of the great gateway Naville and Strabo had described and crossed a Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso wooden footbridge - again modern - which brought me to a large sandstone plinth. Measuring about 80 feet Orang Outan - Serge Gainsbourg & Jane Birkin - Jane Birkin - Serge Gainsbourg length by 40 in width, Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso plinth was composed of enormous paving blocks and was entirely surrounded by water.
Two pools, one rectangular and the other square, had been cut into the plinth along the centre of its long axis and at either end stairways led down to a depth of about 12 feet below the water level.
The plinth also Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso the two massive colonnades Naville mentioned in his report, each of which consisted of five chunky rose-coloured granite monoliths about eight feet square by 12 feet high and weighing, on average, around tons.
Plan of the Osireion. To get a proper understanding of the structure of the OsireionI found it helpful to raise myself directly above it in my mind's eye, so that I could look down on it.
This Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso was assisted by the absence of the original roof which made it easier to envisage the whole edifice in plan. Also helpful was the fact that water had now seeped up to fill all of the building's pools, cells and channels to a depth of a few inches below the lip of the central plinth, as the original designers had apparently intended it should.
The moat was contained by an immense, rectangular enclosure wall, no less than 20 feet thick, 19 made of very large blocks of red sandstone disposed in polygonal jigsaw-puzzle patterns.
Into the huge thickness of this wall were set the 17 cells mentioned in Naville's report. Six lay to the east, six to the west, two to the south and three to the north. Off the central of the three northern cells lay a long transverse chamber, roofed with and composed of limestone. A similar transverse chamber, also of limestone but no longer with an intact roof, lay immediately south of the great gateway.
Finally, the whole structure was enclosed within an outer wall of limestone, thus completing a sequence of inter-nested rectangles, i.
Another notable and outstandingly unusual feature of the Osireion was that it was not even approximately aligned to the cardinal points. Instead, like the Way of the Dead at Teotihuacan in Mexicoit was oriented to the east Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso due north. Since Ancient Egypt had been a civilization that could and normally did achieve precise alignments for its buildings, it seemed to Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso improbable that this apparently skewed orientation was accidental.
Moreover, although 50 feet Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatsothe Seti I Temple was oriented along exactly the same axis - and again not by accident. The question was: which was the older building? Had the axis of the Osireion been predetermined by the axis of the Temple or vice versa? This, it turned out, was an Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso over Noel Coward Vocal Gems - Parisian Pierrot/ Someday Ill Find You/ Matelot/ Il See You Again - Joyce considerable controversy, now long forgotten, had once raged.
In a debate which had many connections with that surrounding the Sphinx and the Valley Temple at Giza, eminent archaeologists had initially argued that the Osireion was a building of truly immense antiquity, a view expressed by Professor Naville in the London Times of 17 March This monument raises Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso important questions.
As to its date, its great similarity with the Temple of the Sphinx [as the Valley Temple was then known] shows it to be of the same epoch when building was made with enormous stones without Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso ornament. This is characteristic of the oldest architecture in Egypt.
I should even say that we may call it the most ancient stone building in Egypt. Reconstruction of the Osireion. Describing himself as overawed by the 'grandeur and stern Red Hot Mama - Various - (Almost) Everybody Slides of the monument's central hall, with its remarkable granite monoliths, and by 'the power of those ancients who could bring from a distance and move such gigantic blocks', Naville made a suggestion concerning the function the Osireion might originally have been intended to serve:.
It is curious that what we may consider as a beginning in architecture is neither a temple nor a tomb, but a gigantic pool, a waterwork Curious indeed, and well worth investigating further; something Naville hoped to do Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso following season.
Unfortunately, the First World War intervened and no archaeology could be undertaken in Egypt for several years. As a result, it was not Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso that the Egypt Exploration Fund was able to send out another mission, which was led not by Naville but by a young Egyptologist named Henry Frankfort.
Frankfort's facts. Later to enjoy great prestige and influence as professor of Pre-Classical Antiquity at the University of London, Frankfort spent several consecutive digging Wiped-Out - Kiss, Ace Frehley - Ace Frehley re-clearing and thoroughly excavating the Osireion between and During the course of this work he made discoveries which, so far as he was concerned, 'settled the date of the building':.
The reader will recall the lemming behaviour which led to a dramatic change of scholarly opinion about the antiquity of the Sphinx and the Valley Temple due to the discovery of a few statues and a single cartouche which seemed to imply some sort of connection with Khafre.
Frankfort 's finds Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso Abydos caused a similar volte-face over the antiquity of the Osireion. In it was 'the most ancient stone building in Egypt'. Within a decade, the standard Egyptological texts began to print the attribution to Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso I as though it were a fact, verifiable by experience or observation.
It is not a fact, however, merely Frankfort's interpretation of the evidence he had found. The only facts are that certain inscriptions and decorations left by Seti appear in an otherwise completely anonymous structure. One plausible explanation is that the structure must have been built by Seti, as Frankfort proposed. The other possibility is that the half-hearted and scanty decorations, cartouches and inscriptions found by Frankfort could have been placed in the Osireion as part of a renovation and repair operation undertaken in Seti's time implying that the structure was by then ancient, as Naville and others had proposed.
What are the merits of these mutually contradictory propositions which identify the Osireion as a the oldest building in Egypt, and b a relatively late New Kingdom structure? Proposition b - that it is the cenotaph of Seti I - is the only attribution accepted by Egyptologists. On close inspection, however, it rests on the circumstantial evidence of the cartouches and inscriptions which prove nothing.
Indeed part of this evidence appears to contradict Frankfort's case. The ostracon bearing the Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso 'Seti is serviceable to Osiris' sounds less like praise for the works of an original builder than praise for a restorer who had renovated, and perhaps added to, an ancient structure identified with the First Time god Osiris. And another awkward little matter has also been Baby Dont Dance (W.I.P.
Radio Edit) - Steps - Baby Dont Dance. The south and north 'transverse chambers', which contain Seti Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso detailed decorations and inscriptions, lie outside the twenty-foot-thick enclosure wall which so adamantly defines the huge, undecorated megalithic core of the building. This had raised the reasonable suspicion in Naville's mind though Frankfort chose to ignore it that the two chambers concerned were 'not contemporaneous with the Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso of the building' but had been added much later during the reign of Seti I, 'probably when he built his own temple'.
Proposition a - that the core edifice of the Osireion had been built millennia Ghostbusters - Various - Up To Date Mix Seti's time - rests on the nature of the architecture itself.
As Naville observed, the Osireion's similarity to the Valley Temple at Giza 'showed it to be of the same epoch when building was made with enormous stones'. Likewise, until the end of her life, Margaret Murray remained convinced that the Osireion was not a cenotaph at all least of all Seti's. She said. It was made for the celebration of the mysteries of Osiris, and so far is unique among all the surviving buildings of Egypt. It is clearly early, for the great blocks of which it is built are of the style of the Old Kingdom; the simplicity of the actual building also points to it being of that early date.
The decoration was added by Seti Iwho in that way laid claim to the building, but seeing how often a Pharaoh claimed the work of his predecessors by putting his name on it, this fact does not carry much weight.
It is the style of the building, the type of the masonry, the tooling of the stone, and not the name of a king, which date a building in Egypt. This was an admonition Frankfort might well have paid more attention to, for as he bemusedly observed of his 'cenotaph', 'It has to be Express Da Funk - Oxide & Neutrino - Bound 4 Da Reload (Casualty) that no similar building is known from the Nineteenth Dynasty.
Indeed it is not just a matter of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Apart from the Valley Temple and other Cyclopean edifices on the Giza plateau, no other building remotely resembling the Osireion is known from any other epoch of Egypt's long history. This handful of supposedly Old Kingdom structures, built out of giant megaliths, seems to belong in a unique category. They resemble one another much more than they Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso any other known style of architecture and in all cases there Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso question-marks over their identity.
Isn't this precisely what one would expect of buildings not erected by any historical pharaoh but dating back to prehistoric times? Doesn't it make sense of the mysterious way in which the Sphinx and the Valley Temple, and now the Osireion as well, seem to have become vaguely connected with the names of particular pharaohs Khafre and Seti Iwithout ever yielding a single piece of evidence that clearly and unequivocally proves those pharaohs built the structures concerned?
Aren't the tenuous links much more indicative of the work of restorers seeking to attach themselves to ancient and venerable monuments than of Intro (Bloody Night) - Dracul - Die Hand Gottes original architects of those monuments - whoever they might have been and in whatever epoch they might have lived?
Setting sail across seas of sand and time. Before leaving Abydos, there was one other puzzle that I wanted to remind myself of. It lay buried in the desert, about a kilometer north-west of the Osireionacross sands littered with the rolling, cluttered tumuli of ancient graveyards.
Out among these cemeteries, many of which dated back to early dynastic and pre-dynastic times, the jackal gods Anubis and Upuaut had traditionally reigned supreme. It seemed to me that there was a sense in which they guarded the mysteries still.
For what was the Osireion if was not a huge, unsolved mystery that deserved closer scrutiny than it has received from the scholars whose job it is to look into these matters? And what was the burial in the desert of twelve high-prowed, seagoing ships if not also a mystery that cried out, loudly, for solution? It was the burial place of those ships I was now crossing the cemeteries of the jackal gods to see:. The Guardian, London, 21 December A fleet of year-old royal ships has been found buried eight miles from the Nile.
American and Egyptian archaeologists discovered the 12 large wooden boats at Abydos Experts said the boats - which are 50 to 60 feet long - are about years old, making them Egypt's earliest royal ships and among the earliest boats found anywhere The experts say the ships, discovered in September, were probably meant for burial Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso the souls of the pharaohs could be transported on them.
The boats were buried in the shadow of a gigantic mud-brick enclosure, thought to have been the mortuary temple of a Second Dynasty pharaoh named Khasekhemwywho had ruled Egypt in the twenty-seventh century BC.
The boat graves are not likely to be earlier than this and may in fact have been built for Djer, but this remains to be proven. A sudden strong gust of wind blew across the desert, scattering sheets of sand. I took refuge for a while in the lee of the looming walls of the Khasekhemwy enclosureclose to the point where the University of Pennsylvania archaeologists had, for legitimate security reasons, reburied the twelve mysterious boats they had stumbled on in They had hoped The Young Ones - This Ones 4 The Young Hearted return in to continue the excavations, but there had been various hitches and, inthe dig was still being postponed.
Softer Faces by Living Hour. The Canadian band present a hyper-present vision of dream pop, defined by romantic longing and surrealistic intent. Bandcamp Album of the Day Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso 11, Hannes Ferm combines stunning musical precision with a fondness for haze and reverb. Bandcamp Album of the Day Jan 29, Peter Sagar soothes with a soft wash of synths and his cooing, curving falsetto. Bandcamp Album of the Day Mar 4, Can't Wake Up by Shakey Graves.
Alejandro Rose-Garcia welcomes a wide range of pop-influenced stylings on his latest, steering him clear of the tropes of standard indie-folk fare. Bandcamp Album of the Day May 4, Messes by stef chura. Bandcamp Album of the Day Feb 7, They all held that the world had arisen out of the Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso waters of chaos, called Nu. They also included a pyramid-shaped mound, called the benbenwhich was the first thing to emerge from the waters.
These elements were likely inspired by the flooding of the Nile River each year; the receding floodwaters left fertile soil in their wake, and the Egyptians may have equated this with the emergence of life from the primeval chaos. The imagery of the pyramidal mound derived from the highest mounds of earth emerging as the river receded.
The sun was also closely associated with creation, and it was said to have first risen from the mound, as the general sun-god Ra or as the god Khepriwho represented the newly-risen sun. Another common element of Egyptian cosmogonies is the familiar figure of the cosmic egga substitute for the primeval waters or the primeval mound. One variant of the cosmic egg version teaches that the sun god, as primeval power, emerged from the primeval mound, which itself stood in the chaos of the primeval sea.
The different creation accounts were each associated with the cult of a particular god in one of the Party Of Special Things To Do - The White Stripes - White Heat cities of Egypt: HermopolisHeliopolisMemphisand Thebes.
The creation myth promulgated in the city of Hermopolis focused on the nature of the universe before the creation of Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso world. The inherent qualities of the primeval waters were represented by a set of eight gods, called the Ogdoad.
The god Nu and his female counterpart Naunet represented the inert primeval water itself; Pottery - Zep Tepi - Fatso and his counterpart Hauhet represented the water's infinite extent; 星の涙、人の想い - Yasunori Mitsuda - Xenogears Original Soundtrack and Kauket personified the darkness present within it; and Amun and Amaunet represented its hidden and unknowable nature, in contrast to the tangible world of the living.
The primeval waters were themselves part of the creation process, therefore, the deities representing them could be seen as creator gods. From it emerged the sun, which rose into the sky to light the world. In Heliopolisthe creation was attributed to Atuma deity closely associated with Ra, who was said to have existed in the waters of Nu as an inert potential being.
Atum was a self-engendered god, the source of all the elements and forces in the world, and the Heliopolitan myth described the process by which he "evolved" from a single being into this multiplicity of elements. The myth thus represented the process by which life was made possible. These nine gods were grouped together theologically as the Enneadbut the eight lesser gods, and all other things in the world, were ultimately seen as extensions of Atum.
The Memphite version of creation centred on Ptahwho was the patron god of craftsmen.
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